Generic Goals and institutionalisation (standardisation)

Generic Goals

Generic Goals are components directly addressing the institutionalisation of a process across the organisation.

Institutionalisation can be viewed as:

  • The process of establishing a practice as a norm or
  • establishing as a norm in an organisation or culture

Institutionalisation is relevant to the level of Maturity:

  • Processes at Level 2 can be institutionalised in each project, but different processes can be defined for different projects
  • At Level 3, these processes are managed (usually centrally) and all projects aspire to conform to a single standard

Institutionalisation is an important concept in process improvement. When mentioned in the Generic Goals and Generic Practice descriptions, institutionalisation implies that the process is ingrained in the way the work is performed and there is commitment and consistency to performing the process.

An institutionalised process is more likely to be retained during times of stress. However, when the requirements and objectives for the process change, the implementation of the process may also need to change to ensure that it remains active.

Generic Practices

The Generic Practices describe activities that address the aspects of institutionalisation. There are supporting Process Areas that partly or fully support the implementation of Generic Practices

Supporting Process Areas for Generic Practices

While Generic Goals and Generic Practices are the model components that directly address the institutionalisation of a process across the organisation, many Process Areas (either in TMMi or CMMI) address institutionalisation by supporting the implementation of the Generic Practices.

The table below provides an overview of the Process Areas that partly or fully support the implementation of a Generic Practice.

Generic Practice Supporting Process Area Explanation
GP2.2 Plan the processTest PlanningThe Test Planning Process Area can implement GP2.2 in full for all project-related Process Areas (except for test planning itself). Test planning itself can be addressed as part of the CMMI Process Area Project Planning.
GP2.5 Train PeopleTest Training ProgramThe Test Training Program Process Area supports the implementation of GP2.5 for all Process Areas by making the organisation-wide training program available to those who will perform or support the processes.
Test Planning The Test Planning Process Area may also support this Generic Practice by identifying and organising the training needed for testing in the project and documenting it in the test plan.
GP2.6 Manage configurationsConfiguration Management (CMMI)The CMMI Process Area Configuration Management can implement GP2.6 in full for all project-related Process Areas as well as some of the organisational Process Areas.
GP2.7 Identify and involve the relevant stakeholdersTest PlanningThe Test Planning Process Area may support this Generic Practice for all project related Process Areas by planning the involvement of identified stakeholders and documenting those in the test plan.
Project Planning (CMMI) Stakeholder involvement for test planning itself can be addressed as part of the CMMI Process Area Project Planning.
GP2.8 Monitor and control the processTest Monitoring and ControlThe Test Monitoring and Control Process Area can implement GP2.8 in full for all Process Areas.
GP2.9 Objectively evaluate adherenceProcess and Product Quality Assurance (CMMI)The CMMI Process Area, Process and Product Quality Assurance can implement GP2.9 in full for all Process Areas.